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The general assumption in the Greek crisis is that, in so far as there is one, plan B — Grexit — is the introduction of a new currency. I think that actually Greece using the euro outside of the Eurozone is more likely as plan B. It’s still very unlikely because it doesn’t make sense at all from the point of view of the Eurozone, but it’s fun to play with as a thought experiment, and discussing it may help understand why it won’t happen.

There are well known advantages to having your own currency, but in this case a new currency would have big problems,:

  • Risk of non-adoption by people on the street because they don’t trust it
  • Inflationary spiral caused by the economic situation, the sudden introduction and the above
  • Logistic issues (printing new banknotes, converting contracts) which is essentially impossible to do over the weekend, and impossible to announce in advance

The alternative is just to keep using the euro while being outside of the Eurozone. Like Kosovo does, or like Ecuador does with the US dollar.

Map of euro adoption

Going lilac? (source: Wikipedia)

How would it work out?

Paper money

According to the Greek central bank there are about €2000 of paper euros in ciculation for each person in Greece (the actual number may be more or less depending on net flows of notes and coins from other Eurozone countries, but you’d expect this to be a conservative estimate because of net incoming tourists presumably arriving with more euros banknotes than they leave with). These are not going anywhere in case of Greek exit from the Eurosystem, so Greeks have more than enough paper banknotes to go round for a long time, even if they can’t print their own new ones.

(Note that this abundance of paper euros also makes the risk that nobody is interested in new drachmas higher than it would otherwise be.)

No central bank

Grexit would happen through the suspension of the ELA, which would in turn push all Greek banks into bankruptcy (as a liquidity problem at the very minimum) which in turn would exclude them from the electronic payment systems (SEPA, etc). This would also make the Greek central bank insolvent. They could just close it down, which would allow them to default on €50-100 billion worth of Eurosystem liabilities. If you’re a unilateral adopter of the euro you don’t need a central bank, the ECB remains your central bank, at arm’s length.

Look ma, no debt!

While we’re defaulting, given a primary surplus the Greek government can operate with no debt at all, and will be better off than the status quo, even if they can’t borrow for the foreseeable future. So they can default on the whole debt stock from the Troika lenders, and why not the private sector as well given under a balanced budget they don’t need borrowing at all, so maintaining a good credit rating on the markets is pointless.

Having no central bank, the Greek treasury can operate their payments by opening commercial bank accounts (with no overdraft needed!) like any business, with Remnant Eurozone banks, e.g. Deutsche Bank. They can use online banking to manage it, no need for the banks to have branches in Greece. They can also use new Greek banks (see below).

Capital flight is good for you

With no central bank, the Greek banks would have no access to clearing accounts in the Eurosystem. But there are several options here. First, we can assume they would lose all their Eurozone assets (most being owned by the ECB as collateral, and Remnant Eurozone governments could enact special confiscation legislation for local law assets owned by Greek banks, fair game), as well as their liabilities (ECB funding, etc). What is left is basically the local Greek-law loan book, and local Greek euro deposits. As of late December this was approximately balanced. With capital flight it actually improves every day: the loan book can’t walk away, but the deposits (liabilities for banks!) shrink, and capital = loans – deposits, which gets more positive with every euro leaving. Assuming the impairments on the loans are not too far off fair value, and the Eurosystem exit doesn’t create too much new defaults (arguably a risk, but much less so in the Kosovo scenario than in the own currency one), we have solvent banks. If all else fail, a haircut on remaining large deposits should help rebalance.

Liquidity for non-Eurosystem euro banks

These Greek banks are illiquid outside the Eurosystem though, with no access to clearing accounts, but there are solutions:

  • Sell the solvent domestic loan books + domestic deposits to Remnant Eurozone bank(s) for €1. E.g. National Bank of Greece could become part of, say, Santander, who can get liquidity for their new Greek subsidiary operations from the Spanish central bank, still a Eurosystem member, and they have spare borrowing power there given their large balance sheet. Problem sorted. And Greek depositors get their €100k guarantee backed by Remnant Eurozone taxpayers as their deposits are fungible with domestic Eurozone deposits!
  • With the same solvent loans + deposits as above, perhaps less crap stuff sent into a bad bank type entity, reopen the (New) Greek banks as corporate entities which use Remnant Eurozone corporate accounts in lieu of central bank accounts for clearing. This needs a stop gap for liquidity, by either converting the deposits to term deposits (a soft form of capital controls arguably) or possibly finding bridge loans from external private entities. Given the entire deposit base is below €150 billion and may be much less by the time this scenario would unfold, and not all of it will move after an exit (too late), it should not be that hard to find hedgies to provide the financing.

The first variant brings a more generally interesting question: in a currency union, should financially weak regions have their own banks, or should they bank using the institutions from financially strong regions within the union? The answer is probably the latter, as happens in most centralised countries (e.g. most people in Cornwall do not bank with Cornish banks, but freeload on London banks, and quite rightly so; at an (ex-)country level the ex-GDR part of Germany has a weak indigenous banking sector and banks with West German banks, and quite rightly so).

What are the risks of Kosovoisation?

I may have missed something, but I don’t see many problems with this scenario, from Greece’s viewpoint. Long term, Greece would have no indigenous monetary policy, but they were never particularly good at it and monetary policy is of limited use anyway for a small country. They would loose access to EU structural funds, but then they save €400 billion of debt so net positive here surely. The main short term problem is if the Remnant Eurozone tries to cut private Greeks and private entities from their (non-overdraft) mainland Eurozone bank accounts. Possible but pretty hard, and mean. And hard to justify given all this would be triggered by the ECB pulling the plug in the first place.

Why this won’t happen

It should be obvious now that this won’t happen, precisely because it would probably be an okay deal for Greece, while costing the Eurosystem dearly both in nominal terms of treasury + ECB write-offs, in possibly collateral damage, and a very high risk of an associated cataclysm for the European project. The ECB will just not pull the plug unless Greeks do something really stupid (like printing their own unauthorised euros, they do have a print works I think).

One of collateral damage effects of the oil price crash of recent weeks has been that airlines who have aggressively hedged their jet fuel requirements face a loss on the hedge. Normally this is not a problem, as the point of hedging is to match anticipated revenues with anticipated costs, but here it may backfire if unsold inventory becomes uncompetitive (at the hedged price) compared to competitors who have not hedged (or hedged less).

This brings the question, how much should ideally an airline hedge its fuel costs?

Hedgie or airline operator?

The first thing is that the airline should resist the temptation to branch out as a macro hedge fund and hedge based on predictions of future oil prices, beyond its current need, e.g. for future flights it hasn’t irreversibly committed to fly yet.

Making macro predictions and running an airline are two very different problems and it is unlikely a single management would be equally good at both. If they’re good at macro prediction, they should close the distracting airline and become an oil trader on a much larger scale, and conversely. Arguably an airline operator will have some idea on the general dynamic of the airline sector, and its fuel requirements, in their geography, but that’s unlikely to be enough to justify making active bets on the broader markets.

Asset liabilities match

So a reasonable fuel is to match the hedge as close as possible to committed fuel liabilities.

The maximum hedge is thus all the fuel required for all the scheduled flights the airlines has to fly, that would be something like all flights with at least 1 passenger booked.

But, in an era of dynamic pricing, the price of seats unsold can be varied in response to supply and demand, and costs. So why hedge unsold tickets at all? This gives the minimum hedge: only hedge the fuel share corresponding to tickets already sold.

This inconveniently would be an exact match only if demand and supply don’t react to fuel costs being pushed to ticket prices, and are not variable for non-fuel factors. So the ideal match is somewhere between those 2 possibilities, without an exact answer being easily attainable.

The simplest for a shrewd airline may be safety in numbers: to hedge as much as (and no more than) their competitors (on comparable routes, etc). Then success remains a result of operational excellence or lack thereof.

Economic intelligence test

For investors in airline shares, there may be more to read in how management justifies their hedging policy — do they get the economics? — rather than how much. And run away from closet hedgies.